Job Requirements and Workers’ Learning: Formal Gaps, Informal Closure, Systematic Limits | Livingstone

Livingstone, D. W. (2010). Job requirements and workers’ learning: Formal gaps, informal closure, systemic limits. Journal of Education and Work, 23, 207-231. Retrieved from

Livingstone describes the relation between education and work requirements in a knowledge-based economy. It describes a range of case studies from IT workers and teachers to clerical workers, autoworkers, and disabled workers. The paper provides an overview of the labor market and the focus that is often placed on formal university education, highlighting potential mismatch between such education and labor requirements. This presents interesting considerations for the development of digital badges to serve as an alternative indicator of individual’s ongoing learning and professional development.

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Mozilla Open Badges
Digital Badges are web-enabled credentials of learning or accomplishment. -Erin Knight, director of the Badge Alliance
Badges contain detailed claims about learning, links to actual evidence of learning, and they're shareable over the web. -Dan Hickey, DPD Project Lead Investigator
To me, digital badges represent the bridge between formal learning & informal structures. -Alex Halavais, DML research competition winner
Open Badges can help people tell a verifiable story about their accomplishments. -Nate Otto, DPD Project coordinator
Regardless of where you start, it’s more than likely you’ll end up somewhere other than your intended destination. That’s okay. Systems are living things, and your badge system needs to be flexible. You must embrace a bit of chaos in its design. -Carla Casilli, Director of Design + Practice at the Badge Alliance