Livingstone, D. W. (2010). Job requirements and workers’ learning: Formal gaps, informal closure, systemic limits. Journal of Education and Work, 23, 207-231. Retrieved from http://www.wallnetwork.ca/resources/Livingstone_EJRM_WALL2006.pdf.
Livingstone describes the relation between education and work requirements in a knowledge-based economy. It describes a range of case studies from IT workers and teachers to clerical workers, autoworkers, and disabled workers. The paper provides an overview of the labor market and the focus that is often placed on formal university education, highlighting potential mismatch between such education and labor requirements. This presents interesting considerations for the development of digital badges to serve as an alternative indicator of individual’s ongoing learning and professional development.