Casilli, C. (2012). Badge system design: What we talk about when we talk about validity. Persona. Retrieved from http://carlacasilli.wordpress.com/2012/05/21/badge-system-design-what-we-talk-about-when-we-talk-about-validity/.
In her article “Badge System Design: What We Talk About When We Talk About Validity,” Casilli (2012) addressed questions and assumptions of the validity of digital badge systems, including the authority of the badge issuer and the issues of what badges represent and indicate about learning. It explored question such as how can the learning that is badged be validated, the credibility with which the badge is perceived, and consistency of the measurement of learning as it adheres to a set standard.