4-H USDA Robotics Digital Badges

Preface

The information contained in this project appendix was gathered from the original project proposal that was funded in 2012 and interviews with project leaders through the end of 2014.  This appendix and the overall design principles database from the DPD project does not reflect further evolution of the project or developments after the final interview that took place in 2014. Based on the information, we inferred that the 4H badge system discussed in this appendix was partially implemented and used the outcomes of this system to inform the development of a different badge system.  Readers should note, then, that 4H currently has an active badge system in the Rockets to the Rescue program where young people within the 4H network work in groups offline to complete a project related to concepts of aerospace engineering.

Summary

Robotics Badges

Figure 1. 4-H Robotics Badges

The 4-H USDA Robotics Digital Badges initiative is a collaborative badging effort between the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 4-H National Headquarters/USDA, and Auburn University. Over the course of badge system development, Auburn University focused on the project’s technical side, while University of Nebraska-Lincoln played a role in developing assessments and curriculum. 4-H described, “The Nebraska faculty has developed an outstanding suite of robotics learning experiences supported through almost $5 million in grants from the National Science Foundation (#ESI-0624591 and DRL-0833403), the NASA Summer of Innovation, and 4-H. These learning experiences will serve as the core content for the 4-H Robotics digital badging system for youth ages 9 to 18.  The base of the 4-H program is the national geospatial and robotics technologies for the 21st Century (GEAR-TECH-21) core curriculum that combines geospatial concepts with robotic and computer engineering” (DML Stage 1 Proposal). The project launched the badging effort as a pilot that focuses initially on its robotics curriculum among a broad selection of subjects. The badging system aims to promote youth development and robotics-focused learning outcomes for students ages 12-18.

Founded at the turn of the 20th century, 4-H is a well-established, the largest youth development program in the nation that has provided a tradition of recognition of achievements and learning. It offers a range of programs and activities that take place in primarily non-formal learning contexts. The project also asserted partnerships and work with land grant universities. 4-H sought to develop and layer digital badges over their existing credentials and learning ecosystem, moving into the digital space. Entering into digital environment, the project melds the digital with traditional, developing digital badges along with existing set of credentials. 4-H asserted, “Robotics badges are the beginning of a new tradition in 4-H” (HASTAC Q&A). The project aimed for youth to compile or organize an e-portfolio in which they can include digital badges that signal their learning, skills, and achievements in robotics. The badging system also asserted, “Additional curriculum, developed by University of Nebraska-Lincoln with other land grant universities, includes “4-H Robotics: Engineering for Today and Tomorrow,” that consists of three tracks: virtual robotics, junk drawer robotics, and robotics platforms” (DML Stage 1 Proposal).

The organization stated, “4-H youth development is an integral and essential part of the total Cooperative Extension System’s educational program. From the very beginning it was intended that the Cooperative Extension Service would provide for the teaching of youth. In 1912 the USDA administrators sent a letter to states indicating that the regular emblem for all labels relating to youth clubs would be the four-leaf clover. The term 4-H Club was first used by USDA in 1918 and the four-leaf clover emblem was patented in 1924. Thus, it became the official trademark of the USDA, land-grant extension education for youth audiences. In 1948, the 80th Congress legislated the 4-H Club name and emblem as the legal title” (4-H National Headquarters Fact Sheet).

With digital badges, the project moved toward the goal of advancing their programs and activities. The project developed their own backpack while maintaining compatibility with Mozilla Open Badge Infrastructure (“4-H Digital Badges Introduction”). A compelling feature involves the development of digital badge system and understanding how it fits within the context of the 4-H learning ecosystem.

Timeline 

4-H began development on its badge system as a grantee of the 2011 MacArthur /HASTAC DML Badges for Lifelong Competition. The DPD team interviewed 4-H in August 2012 and April 2014. The project planned to have a working demo site in Spring 2013, but because of technical issues had to postpone this goal and contract a developer from overseas (DPD Follow-up Interview). Since then, the robotics digital badge effort has officially issued some badges to youth, noting challenges and insights generated through the experience. As part of a DPD follow-up interview in October 2014, the project transitioned from their focus on robotics to a badge system geared toward their National Youth Science Day, developing a Rockets to the Rescue badge on aerospace engineering1.

Evolving Practices and Design Principles

What follows is a list of practices as they relate to the general and more specific design principles in each category of practice. The headings name a (a) General Principle, (b) Specific principle, (c) Specific practice. The paragraphs below each heading detail the project’s (a) intended practice, (b) enacted practice, and (c) how that practice relates to the specific and general principles.

Design Principles for Recognizing Learning

The 4-H badging system recognized learning with external backing behind its badges. The project also aligned its badges to national standards to communicate the skills captured by a badge. In line with its existing credentials of ribbons and certificates, the project designed badges to last permanently without a date of expiration.

Seek external backing > Externally endorsed > Badge accreditation

Intended, enacted, formalized

The project stated that “[t]he 4-H program is administered through 109 land grant universities in every state and territory and is anchored in almost all of the 3,150 counties across America” (DML Stage 1 Proposal). They further explained the aspect of “[p]rotection: 4-H is a program that is associated with universities and a badging system will be designed to assure that institutional credibility is clear to maintain value and integrity. Issuance of a 4-H badge will be dependent upon verified completion of learning criteria” (DML Stage 2 Proposal). Given the history of the organization, the project planned to back the claims made by the badges about learning with the 4-H official seal and the interconnections between the agencies behind the organization. The project is backed by accredited institutions. The project issues four badges designed in partnership with 4-H and USDA at the national, federal level (DPD Follow-up Interview).

In the badge system, the University of Nebraska curriculum team developed sets of rubrics to be used by group leaders in order to award badges. Group leaders will engage in a training module to prepare them to appropriately issue badges. The project ensures that the credential is validated by a community member with specialized training. The practice “badge accreditation” exemplifies the principles “seek external backing” and sub-principle “externally endorsed,” for 4-H strengthens the credibility of the claims made by badges with backing from nationally recognized institutions and organizations.

Align badges to standards > Use community and national/international standards > Standards alignment

Intended, enacted, formalized

The project articulated in their DML proposal “Scarcity & Granularity, Qualifications: Criteria, specificity, various components and categories, and other pertinent design considerations will be related to the 4-H curriculum on robotics. The overall 4-H Robotics team will determine a number of details in this area and anticipates multiple badges and sets of criteria with various levels of accomplishment” (DML Stage 2 Proposal). The project planned to determine the criteria for different types of badges. The project continues to align the badges to the 4-H robotics curriculum, which is a rigorous program of learning.

The project alignsthe badges in this curriculum to 4-H standards and built in 21st century workforce skills into those standards. The credential is aligned to program specific standards and to 21st century skills.

The practice “standards alignment” demonstrates the principle “align badges to standards” and sub-principle “use community and national/international standards,” for 4-H enhances the transparency of the badges and fosters a greater understanding of the skills recognize through aligning to the 4-H standards.

Seek external backing > Externally valued > Credential recognized abroad

Intended, not enacted, not formalized

The project intended for the badge credentials to extend beyond the organization. 4-H articulated the feature of “[p]ortability: 4-H badges will be recognized beyond 4-H in that they will serve as a record of accomplishment in personal e-portfolios. Validation will be related to the requirements for earning badges which will be captured in the meta data. 4-H may also collaborate with partner organizations to jointly offer badges that would be appropriate in multiple settings” (DML Stage 2 Proposal).

The project explained the feature of Transparency/Meaning: Badging in the 4-H community will require some orientation but it is not so different from traditional means of recognition of accomplishments in 4-H. 4-H has traditionally utilized ribbons, medals, certificates, record book entries, etc. so there is a general understanding of acknowledgements of accomplishment inherent to 4-H already. Use of a digital badge may prove to be very popular especially if the badge is linked to a personal record that shows what was done to obtain it. As a LGU program, 4-H is a widely recognizable and credible brand. As such, 4-H badges will carry considerable value with educational institutions and employers” (DML Stage 2 Proposal). The badge contains an image of a four leaf clover that represents the 4-H seal or logo. The project considered formally collaborating with other institution regarding credentials, but 4-H has yet to continue development of this practice.

Align badges to standards > Use community and national/international standards > External collaboration

Intended, enacted, formalized

The project described, “4-H National Headquarters/USDA and NASA are developing parallel but collaborative proposals for this competition that are intended to fit together as a comprehensive package. Collaborative efforts will focus primarily on developing common competencies and standards in robotics content (such as engineering design practices) and 21st Century Workforce ‘soft skills.’ This will insure that anyone receiving robotics badges from either 4-H National Headquarters/USDA or NASA will have obtained the same level of skills and competencies. 4-H and NASA will build on existing local partnerships that incorporate the best learning experiences from both entities to reach youth in formal and non-formal settings” (DML Stage 2 Proposal). Collaborations with other initiatives aim to ensure the controlled levels of competency across skills. The project still needs to continue development on this practice.

Determine appropriate lifespan of badges > Never expires > Badge permanence

Intended, enacted, formalized

The new online curriculum is pushing a move from the physical 4-H record book to an online e-portfolio. 4-H issues badge credentials and supporting artifacts that are permanent. John A. Cook of Auburn University indicated that just as ribbons and certificates can have lasting permanence, the project issues badges that never expire (DPD Follow-up Interview). The practice “badge permanence” illustrates the principle “determine appropriate lifespan of badges” and sub-principle “never expires,” given that 4-H badges have the potential to last forever just as students can keep their physical 4-H ribbons and certificates for an indefinite period of time.

Use badges to map learning trajectory > Provide routes or pathways > Create badges to capture users’ learning process

Intended, enacted, formalized

The badging initiative planned for users to create the badges and learning trajectories. In the badging system, some badges may be able to be created by site leaders later in the initiative, but this feature is not available yet due to concerns about branding. Custom badges may be awarded.

The 4-H initial badges does not reflect a sequence or a leveled badging structure (DPD Follow-up Interview). Rather, the badging system features five categories of badges: Robot Hands, Movement, Mechatronics, Platforms, and Competitions. Learners complete a series of steps before earning the badge, exploring different pathways in the STEM fields.

Design Principles for Assessing Learning in Digital Badge Systems

4-H/USDA Robotics Digital Badges is developing performance-based assessments that will be judged by experts and may be presented in the form of an e-portfolio, similar to the portfolios and logs 4-H participants create as they complete projects. Because 4-H has been aligning itself to national standards, the activities and badges earned will be aligned to standards to some degree. The e-portfolios and the idea of custom badges are in development.

Use performance assessments in relative contexts >Informal and formal scoring of performance-based assessments

Intended, enacted, formalized

4-H delineated the skills to assess, ranging from“important workplace and life skills like teamwork, problem solving and leadership” to skills involved in “building computer programs, building robots, recording and analyzing data, using a GPS device, and creating GIS maps” (DML Stage 2 Proposal). They outlined competencies including “the engineering design process, systems engineering, robot sensors, and robot mobility, technology integration and computer programming” (DML Stage 2 Proposal). They also award badges to youth “for presentations, competitions, and career exploration accomplishments” (DML Stage 2 Proposal).

The team planned to determine the mechanism for assessment. They stated, Criteria for 4-H robotics badges will be determined by the total team and will relevant to the associated curriculum for robotics in 4-H” (DML Stage 2 Proposal).

The project described that “[m]any existing assessments for 4-H Robotics are performance-based, embedded assessments that can be informally scored by an adult leader or formally scored by a panel of judges. These performance-based measures are a natural fit for use with badges and could readily be earned by youth as a sign of their accomplishments and credentials” (DML Stage 1 Proposal). The project planned to implement informal scoring of “performance-based embedded assessments” presumably of awardee artifacts (presumably for less valued badges). In addition, they intended to include formal scoring of awardee artifacts by a panel of judges (presumably for more valued badges). In the badging system, students complete work, a survey instrument that includes self-reflection type of questions, next finish a notebook to submit for review, then design and build a robot, submit the evidence for that, and finally go into the point of demonstration (DPD Follow-up Interview).

In the badge system, the project still intends to implement informal and formal scoring of performance-based assessments. The project also intended formal scoring of artifacts to be judged by a panel of judges. The principle “use performance assessments in relative contexts” is illustrated by the practice “informal and formal scoring of performance-based assessments,” as 4-H designed assessments to evaluate the quality of student work and projects. 

Enhance validity with expert judgement > Use human experts > Badges validated by experts

Intended, enacted, formalized

As the project intended, “Many existing assessments for 4-H Robotics are performance-based, embedded assessments that can be informally scored by an adult leader or formally scored by a panel of judges. These performance-based measures are a natural fit for use with badges and could readily be earned by youth as a sign of their accomplishments and credentials” (DML Stage 1 Proposal). The team at the University of Nebraska worked to design the instrument, testing, and retesting, and vetting all the way down to individual questions to ensure the quality of the assessments to identify and determine the performance and artifacts are rigorous (DPD Follow-up Interview).

The project planned to award badges for both performance-based concrete and “soft” skills, validated by one or a panel of experts. The badge system continues to carry out this practice. The practice “badges validated by experts” provides and example of the principle “enhance validity with expert judgement” and sub-principle “use human experts,” for 4-H integrates judges in the assessment process to evaluate the work and projects completed by youth.

Use leveled badge systems > Competency levels > Leveled badges

intended, not enacted, not formalized

The project structured badges in levels as participation and performances increase. 4-H described, “The system itself can be functional but we don’t know where they will be with evaluation tools. We want this to be rigorous, evaluating them on not only engineering product but also assessing the scientific skills and the 21st century workforce skills like communication and teamwork. We are doing 3 different types of assessment. We want to be sure everything is in place” (DPD Initial interview). With an online platform in place, the project does not implement a leveled badge structure (DPD Follow-up Interview). 

Align assessment activities to standards: create measurable learning objectives > National/state standards > Standards alignment

Intended, enacted, formalized

The project intended to align badges to national 4-H standards. John A. Cook of Auburn University asserted, “National level 4-H curriculum has been aligning itself with national standards, and so this set of badges will be aligned to some degree. That will be specified as we get farther into it…. Often times they can align what the group experiences about geospatial technology over five days could be aligned to appropriate skills and abilities. We do align to standards” (DPD Initial Interview). The project aligns the badges to the 4-H Robotics Curriculum and national standards (DPD Follow-up Interview). The practice “standards alignment” demonstrates the principle “align assessment activities to standards: create measurable learning objectives” and sub-principle “national/state standards,” for the standards provide a basis for measurement of students’ skills and learning.

Use rubrics > Rubrics developed for assessment for specific artifacts > Rubrics are used to assess learning

Intended, enacted, formalized

The initiative planned to develop a set of rubrics for assessments that will be reviewed by a trained leader or mentor. In the badge system, 4-H employs rubrics to assess learning. Judges use rubrics in the evaluation and rating of a student’s effort of building a project or robot (DPD Follow-up Interview). The principle “use rubrics” and sub-principle “rubrics developed for assessment for specific artifacts” are shown through the practice “rubrics are used to assess learning,” as the project employs rubrics to provide a common basis for measuring and evaluating learning. 

Use e-portfolios > Local to community > E-portfolios

Intended, not enacted, not formalized

Just as 4-H participants keep a record book of their achievements and projects, the initiative looked into building e-portfolios with projects and badges. The details have yet to be refined. E-portfolios may be used to assess and document learning. In terms of the badging initiative, the project has yet to develop this function, with the vision that students would be able to see their badges on their profiles and look deeper into the effort of badges.The project is also pursuing a different version that takes a more kid-friendly approach in which parents would also be able to login and access a graphical display of the badges with their children (DPD Follow-up Interview).

Design Principles for Motivating Learning

This initiative plans to employ badges in a similar way to its rich tradition of portfolios for 4-H students. Its initial plans to collaborate with outside institutions have resulted in discussions with organizations such as NASA and NOAA. Engaging with these organizations could lend additional credence to badges issued, which students could potentially use to apply for college credit and (eventually) jobs. The hope is that badges will be a way for students to take all of the skills and experience compiled in students’ portfolios and make use of them in the world.

Build outside value for badges >  Evidence for outside opportunities > Outside value of badges

Intended, enacted, formalized

4-H articulated in their proposal “Endorsement: An endorsement, approval, or acceptance by a government agency such as USDA, NASA (and partners), and others would provide greater credibility to badges. Further, criteria for earning badges would likely be developed by a partner institution such as a land grant university which would then be approved by partner agencies. The 4-H Robotics curriculum was a collaborative effort of multiple universities and drew from interactions with NASA robotics programs as well. Criteria for 4-H robotics badging will be drawn from the work and experience associated with the development of the 21st Century (GEAR-TECH-21) and National 4-H Robotics curriculum led by faculty at the University of Nebraska” (DML Stage 2 Proposal). The project places value on badges due to recognition from outside institutions.

Build outside value for badges > Badges as academic credit > Badges as academic credit

Intended, not enacted, not formalized

The badging project detailed, “Opportunities & Privileges: There is flexibility in the design and development of badging for robotics in 4-H which allows for attaching opportunities and privileges as they are earned. There is also interest in associating 4-H badges with university academic credit. Badges will be a part of a member’s record of achievements (e-portfolio)” (DML Stage 2 Proposal). University credit further encourages students to value these badges.

The project envisioned badges to provide increased evidence of employability. In addition, badges could potentially be associated with college credit. John A. Cook described, “And then, further out, you could collect credentials associated with college credit. Eventually, they could use these credentials to apply for a job without ever having gone to a university” (DPD Initial Interview). This practice has yet to be carried out, as the project is not that far in the badging initiative given delays and challenges in setting up the badge system. 4-H articulates a possibility and objective that they project has yet to achieve (DPD Follow-up Interview)

Utilize different types of assessment > Self > Displaying work through a portfolio

Intended, not enacted, not formalized

In the badge system, students have an artifact that represents their accomplishments. John A. Cook explained, “One of the things we’re thinking about-and we were prior to the badging concept coming out-was the idea of a portfolio of learning. You build your body of learning, your e-portfolio. On the one hand, you collect these evidences of things that you’ve learned because you’re interested in them, and then things that you learn that have value, developing your abilities and skills” (DPD Initial Interview).

The badge system indicated that they are not far enough with and have not observed enough interaction in the badge system to draw conclusions about the motivational effects of this aspect. The project anticipates that students would want to share their badges with others, and it is also interested in examining more closely how learners are exposed to learning opportunities and how that shapes their paths of learning (DPD Follow-up Interview).

Recognize identities > Targets a specific group > Targets a specific group

Intended, enacted, formalized

In the DPD Initial Interview, John A. Cook of Auburn University raised the issue that many children do not go to college. In the badge system, badges might hold a differential meaning for some students and therefore, college credit might mean more to some students than others. The project targets students in the 4-H community.

Design Principles for Studying Learning

The badging initiative conducts research-based inquiry to design activities. Although the project is still in its earlier stages, it plans to collect data on the interactions and learning that emerges to inform badge system and curricular development. 4-H has looked into online spaces and discussion forums to foster an online learning community in the badging system.

Improve badge impact > Research for badges > Design activities through research-based inquiry

Intended, enacted, formalized

The project intended to design activities through research based inquiry. They explained, “Land grant faculty design learning experiences-through a comprehensive national system-that are peer reviewed, research based, and age appropriate (Appendix A)” (DML Stage 1 Proposal).

Auburn is working on designing professional development for facilitators who will be issuing badges.Those awarding badges will go through a training program. 4-H indicated that this is how they typically approach projects, especially Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM), in which they build on ideas of learning and leadership development (DPD Follow-up Interview). The principle “improve badge impact” and sub-principle “research FOR badges” is demonstrated by the practice “design activities through research-based inquiry,” as 4-H conducts research and collects data on its programs to evaluate its effectiveness and inform its design.

Improve badge impact > Research for badges > Building an online community

Intended, enacted, formalized

To increase usability, the initiative is looking into human interfacing in online communities on sites such as Word Press. They hope to use discussion forums for facilitate community building. The initiative wants to build an online community around their badging practices. 4-H aims to create online learning communities like FyFl and envisions sites like iKnowScience to serve as hubs of learning as part of an effort led that is national in scope. The project views such sites as a dynamic space where learners could connect, see recent activities, and view projects that others have shared (DPD Follow-up Interview). The principle “improve badge impact” and “research FOR badges” is exemplified through the practice of “building an online community,” as 4-H examines online sites to shape their practices of fostering a web-based hub of learning and sharing.

Improve badge impact > Research for badges > Improving curricula through research

4-H stated, “At University of Nebraska, they are looking at the effectiveness of curriculum” with the target audience (DPD Initial Interview). The initiative is researching ways to improve curriculum effectiveness. The team at the University of Nebraska carries out research on badges to ensure the rigor of the curriculum and support the quality of learning that occurs. As 4-H moves forward on the project, it plans to look more into this practice to see which areas need revision (DPD Follow-up Interview). The principle “improve badge impact” and sub-principle “research FOR badges” is shown through the practice “improving curricula through research,” for the badging initiative reflects on their process and applies its research findings toward its curricular design.

Challenges this Project Faced

One of the main challenges that 4-H faced is the integration of a digital badging system into an institutionalized program that has a history of tradition. The 4-H badging initiative faced challenges in the recognition of learning by badges given COPPA restrictions on badge viewability. In light of this, the project aimed to design many badges to be kept in a private backpack and not made publicly available. Moreover, the project also encountered technical issues in setting up the online badging platform.

Challenges in recognition and the limited viewability of badges

The project houses 4-H badges in a private backpack, which is not publicly viewable due to COPPA restrictions. Hopefully, once the participant turns 13 she will have the choice to push these badges out to her public badges backpack so all can view her credentials. The badge credential is siloed in a private badge backpack.

Technical challenges and infrastructure constraints

The project encountered roadblocks in the development of the badging system. In specific, 4-H encountered challenges with setting up their badging system and experienced delays with getting a working platform up and running. Although initially to set up a working prototype by Spring 2013, the project had to postpone its launch and hired a developer from overseas to develop the platform for the badging system. The badge system adapted to meet this issue by shifting its strategy and plan, taking another approach and direction toward building the online platform.

Introducing digital badges into traditional institution and existing system of credentials

With the longstanding institutionalized program of 4-H, the introduction of digital badges can encounter a certain amount of inertia and structural considerations. This raises implications for the shifts and changes that can be made, balancing the digital component with the general, usual mode of operation. John A. Cook expressed concerns with regard to the perception of badges and are cognizant of these challenges to overcome as they proceed, and he asserts that he is pushing people to think about the science of learning and how it is changing with the emergence of a digital environment (DPD Initial Interview). There are considerations of how to fit and integrate digital badges into the existing system.

Notes

In 2014, 4-H partnered with Accreditrust and Instructure to develop a new ‘Rockets to the Rescue’ badge through the For Youth, For Life Learning Network, beginning enrollment on September 22 and the issuing of badges on October 1. Although the project promotes the badge primarily toward young people in Alabama, Arizona, and Washington for the National Youth Science Day experiment, the badge system is open to the population of young people in the 4-H network nationwide. In a DPD follow-up interview, John A. Cook of Auburn University explained that the new project development was informed by lessons learned from the 4-H Robotics badge development system, applying the insights that emerged on assessment design and the badge earning process. To earn the Rockets to the Rescue badge, young people work in groups offline to complete a project related to concepts of aerospace engineering and then login to the Canvas network

References

4-H Official Website. Fyfl Network. Retrieved from http://www.fyflnetwork.org/4hbadges/

4-H. (n.d.). Leadership. Retrieved from http://www.4-h.org/about/leadership/

4-H. (n.d.). 4-H DML Stage 1 Proposal. Retrieved from http://dml4.dmlcompetition.net/

dml4.dmlcompetition.net/Competition/4/badges-projects.php%3Fid=2618.html

4.H. (n.d.). 4-H DML Stage 2 Proposal. Retrieved from http://dml4.dmlcompetition.net/

dml4.dmlcompetition.net/Competition/4/badges-projects.php%3Fid=3229.html

Cook, J. A. (2012, August 30). DPD Initial Interview.

Cook, J. A. (2014, April 10). DPD Follow-up 4-H Interview.

KXNNetwork: For Youth, For Life. (2014, February 27). 4-H Digital Badges Introduction.

Youtube. Retrievd from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F0Nx8zQESKU

Project Q&A with: 4-H/USDA Robotics Digital Badges. (2013, July 1). HASTAC. Retrieved

from http://www.hastac.org/wiki/project-qa-4-husda-robotics-digital-badges

USDA. (2011, August). 4-H’s Public Partnership: USDA & Land-grant Institutions. Retrieved

from http://www.csrees.usda.gov/nea/family/res/pdfs/2011_public_partnership.pdf

 

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Mozilla Open Badges
Digital Badges are web-enabled credentials of learning or accomplishment. -Erin Knight, director of the Badge Alliance
Badges contain detailed claims about learning, links to actual evidence of learning, and they're shareable over the web. -Dan Hickey, DPD Project Lead Investigator
To me, digital badges represent the bridge between formal learning & informal structures. -Alex Halavais, DML research competition winner
Open Badges can help people tell a verifiable story about their accomplishments. -Nate Otto, DPD Project coordinator
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